Baby Born With HIV Apparently Cured
Scientists announced that a baby born with the virus that causes AIDS
appears to have been cured.
The child has been off medication for about a year with no signs of infection.
There is no guarantee that the child will remain healthy, although testing uncovered just
traces of the virus' genetic material still lingering. If so, it would mark the world's only
second reported cure. Specialists said at a major AIDS meeting
in Atlanta, that this promises hope for efforts to eliminate HIV infection in children,
especially in AIDS-plagued African countries where too many babies are born with the virus.
The baby, born in rural Mississippi, was treated
aggressively with antiretroviral drugs starting around 30 hours after birth,
something that is not usually done. The United Nations
estimates that 330,000 babies were newly infected in 2011, the most recent year
for which there is data, and that more than three million children globally are
living with H.I.V.
If the report is confirmed, the child born in
Mississippi would be only the second well-documented case of a cure in the
world. That could give a boost to research aimed at a cure, something that only a
few years ago was thought to be virtually impossible, though some experts said
the findings in the baby would probably not be relevant to adults.
The first person cured was Timothy Brown, known as the
Berlin patient, a middle-aged man with leukemia who received a bone-marrow
transplant from a donor genetically resistant to H.I.V. infection.
this is our Timothy Brown, said Dr. Deborah Persaud, associate professor at the
Johns Hopkins Children's Center and lead author of
on the baby. "It's proof of principle that we can cure H.I.V. infection if we
can replicate this case."
Why Weight-Loss Surgery Mysteriously Reverses Diabetes in Some Patients
Apr 27, 2011 | 2:01 PM ET | Rachael Rettner, MyHealthNewsDaily Staff Writer
Diabetic patients who have had weight-loss surgery often see their diabetes quickly disappear.
Now researchers are coming closer to finding out the reason for this phenomenon.
Weight-loss surgery and dieting alter the body's metabolism in different ways, the researchers
say. The changes produced after weight-loss surgery may be particularly beneficial for reversing
About 50 to 80 percent of patients who have gastric bypass surgery (a type of
weight-loss surgery) see a reduction in their blood glucose levels that's enough for them to
be considered free of the disease. Sometimes, this can happen within hours after surgery,
said study researcher Dr. Blandine Laferrere, of St. Luke's and Roosevelt Hospital Center in
New York City. Such remission is rarely seen after dieting alone, the researchers say.The
results show patients who received gastric bypass surgery have reduced levels of certain
amino acids in their blood compared with those who achieve weight loss through diet alone.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins in the body.
Much more research is needed to determine how this decrease in amino acids
and other changes in metabolism might contribute to diabetes remission. But future investigations
may yield new ways to treat diabetes -- doctors may be able to mimic the effects of weight-loss
surgery without requiring patients to go under the knife.
Researchers want to "understand better what causes Type 2 diabetes with the
hope of developing some new treatment models" for the condition, Laferrere said.
However, experts point out the surgery is not without risks. It can cause malabsorption of
nutrients. Indeed, the reason for the decrease in blood amino acid levels in the patients
after surgery may be malabsorption of protein, said Dr. Sunil Bhoyrul, a bariatric surgeon
at Scripps Memorial Hospital in La Jolla, Calif.
"It really shows the double-edge sword of malabsorption," Bhoyrul said. "It might be a good
explanation for why you get a better resolution of diabetes. But it also may be the cause of
protein malabsorption," Bhoyrul said. Because of this issue, use of the surgery should be
approached with caution, he said.
The study was published today (April 27) in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
'Diabetes surgery' Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not properly respond to insulin.
This hormone is needed to get sugar, or glucose, into cells. By the time diabetes develops, t
he cells are resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in the bloodstream. Patients with
diabetes are at an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and blindness,
according to the National Institutes of Health.
Researchers have hypothesized that changes in gut hormones may contribute to
diabetes reversal after surgery, but other factors might also play a role. Laferrere and
colleagues at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C., studied two groups of obese
individuals with a body mass index, or BMI, over 35 (BMI is a ratio of height and weight and
is considered an indicator of body fatness.) One group of 10 participants underwent gastric
bypass surgery and were followed up one month after their surgery. The other, with 11 subjects,
went on a diet to achieve about a 20-pound (10 kilogram) weight loss.
Both groups lost about the same amount of weight (20 pounds), but those who
received the surgery saw a significant decrease in their blood glucose levels.They also had
much lower levels of amino acids called branched-chain amino acids compared with those who
lost the weight through dieting. These types of amino acids have been associated with
insulin-resistance and heart disease.
Higher levels of amino acids in the blood may prevent insulin from working
normally, Laferrere said. The researchers now want to find out how changes in amino acid
levels relate to changes in gut hormones after surgery.Selecting patients
It's possible the differences in amino acid levels might be because those on the diet ate more
protein than those who underwent surgery. But all patients had their blood samples after fasting
for a night, making it less likely the subjects' diet influenced their blood amino acid levels.
This also means differences in amino acid levels might not be due to malabsorption, Laferrere said.
But malabsorption is still a risk. The surgery causes food to bypass a section of the gut in
which certain nutrients may be absorbed, Bhoyrul said Bhoyrul says studies like these can help
doctors decide who will benefit most from gastric bypass surgery. Someone with newly diagnosed
diabetes might be better off receiving gastric banding, which restricts the stomach but doesn't
come with as high a risk of malabsorption. But for a patient with longstanding severe diabetes,
the risks of malabsorption from gastric bypass might be outweighed by the reversal of diabetes
from the surgery, Bhoyrul said. "This kind of study may help us choose the right operation for
the right patient," Bhoyrul said. Pass it on: Gastric bypass surgery may cause reductions in
the blood levels of certain amino acids, which in turn may contribute to diabetes remission.